Bakhtin explores Rabelais’ folk humor during the Middle Ages and Renaissance era. He argues that Rabelias concepts were misunderstood. Explores two concepts based on Rabelais's humor.
I. Carnivalesque humor
- There are no hierarchical existing in religious, political and moral values during carnival; allows for atmosphere of humor and chaos. The time of carnival everyone is seen as equals
- Through costume and mask, individuals are allowed to temporarily exchange their bodies or images to reflect that of another. Fools become wise and royalty become beggars.
Examples: clowns, jugglers, giants, and dwarfs
- Rabelais works displayed scatological humor.
- Essential principle is the lowering of all that is high, spiritual, ideal, abstract. (Bakhtin)
- Parodies during the mid evil period involved grotesque body concepts.
- Focus was on the lower body and midsection; involved discussions and images of devouring, defecation, urination, eating drinking and birth.
- Use of unrealistic characters were seen as humorous.
Modern examples of Rabelias' images and characters.